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Title: International Optimism: Correlates and Consequences of Dispositional Optimism across 61 Countries
Authors: Baranski, Erika
Sweeny, Kate
Gardiner, Gwendolyn
Members of the International Situations Project
Smederevac, Snežana 
Čolović, Petar 
Mitrović, Dušanka 
Oljača, Milan 
Funder, David
Issue Date: 28-Jul-2020
Publisher: Wiley
Abstract: Objective. The current exploratory study sought to examine dispositional optimism, or the general expectation for positive outcomes, around the world. Method. Dispositional optimism and possible correlates were assessed across 61 countries (N = 15,185; mean age = 21.92; 77% female). Mean‐level differences in optimism were computed along with their relationships with individual and country‐level variables. Results. Worldwide, mean optimism levels were above the midpoint of the scale. Perhaps surprisingly, country‐level optimism was negatively related to GDP per capita, population density, and democratic norms and positively related to income inequality and perceived corruption. However, country‐level optimism was positively related to projected economic improvement. Individual‐level optimism was positively related to individual well‐being within every country, although this relationship was less strong in countries with challenging economic and social circumstances. Conclusions. While individuals around the world are generally optimistic, societal characteristics appear to affect the degree to which their optimism is associated with psychological well‐being, sometimes in seemingly anomalous ways.
ISSN: 1467-6494
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States
Appears in Collections:FF Publikacije/Publications

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